John Skirving, Architect of the Cottage

Introduction by Erin Carlson Mast
Contributed by David Rotenstein

Previous research indicated that John Skirving was the architect of the veranda on George W. Riggs’s house, which later became President Lincoln’s seasonal residence, and that Skirving’s influence was limited to that portion of the building.  Through the research of Dr. David Rotenstein, it is now evident that Skirving was responsible for the architectural design of more of the Cottage built for George W. Riggs Jr. in 1842 than previously thought.

As part of his research, Rotenstein located and contacted descendants of John Skirving, Ms. McLaughlin of Ohio and Ms. Herold of South Carolina.  McLaughlin and Herold visited President Lincoln’s Cottage this past weekend to see the work of their great-great-great grandfather.

Great-great-great granddaughters of Cottage architect John Skirving, hold a board, signed by their ancestor, which was found in the Cottage during restoration.

What follows is a modified excerpt from Dr. Rotenstein’s paper, “John Skirving, Capital Craftsman.”

John Skirving was an architect, artist, engineer, and entrepreneur who came to Washington in the winter of 1839 to heat and ventilate buildings under construction by the federal government. Recognized by his contemporaries as a competent mechanic and skilled designer, Skirving made enduring and wide-ranging contributions to Washington’s built environment and the nation’s aesthetics during the mid-nineteenth century. He is mainly known as a footnote to the architectural history of the farmhouse built for banker George W. Riggs Jr. that has gained fame as President Lincoln’s Cottage on the grounds of the Armed Forces Retirement Home.
In 1842 Skirving became involved with Washington carpenter William H. Degges and the son of a District brickmaker and bricklayer in the design and construction of a new farmhouse for George W. Riggs Jr. The collaboration came near the end of the depression and it was made possible by the bankruptcy of John Agg, a Riggs family friend. In June 1842, Riggs bought Agg’s farm in the hills overlooking Washington and the following month the banker hired Degges to design and build a new house. Degges drew up the “Specifications of materials and workmanship, of a house to be built for Geo. W. Riggs on his farm near Rock Creek Church.”[1]  The July 23, 1842 specifications called for a two-story brick house. All carpentry and masonry work was detailed, from the width of each wall to the types of brick, wood, glass, and hardware to be used. One brief passage in the three-page document provides the sole surviving documentary link between Degges and Skirving: “Verandah on South side according to plan given by M John Skirving.” [2]
While Degges was a competent builder, he lacked Skirving’s experience and skills in architectural and landscape design. American architectural pattern book authors like Alexander Jackson Davis and Andrew Jackson Downing relied heavily on the aesthetics and vocabulary of the built environment popular in England during the first half of the nineteenth century.[3]  In Skirving, Degges and Riggs had a living thread tied to the source of the contemporary domestic architects popularizing and adapting English templates to the American landscape.

[1] William H. Degges, “Specifications of Materials & Workmanship, of a House to Be Built for Geo. W. Riggs on His Farm Near Rock Creek Church, Formerly the Property of M Agg,” 23 July 1842. Library of Congress. Manuscript Division, Riggs family papers, 1763-945, Business Papers, George W. Riggs, Jr., 1836-1852. Container 67.

[2] Degges, “Specifications of Materials & Workmanship, of a House to be Built for Geo. W. Riggs on his Farm near Rock Creek Church, Formerly the property of M Agg.”

[3] Dell Upton, “Pattern Books and Professionalism: Aspects of the Transformation of Domestic Architecture in America, 1800-1860,” Winterthur Portfolio 19, no. 2/3 (Autumn 1984): 107-50. While Downing was an unlikely source of Skirving’s design aesthetic in the early 1840s, pioneering English landscape architect John Claudius Loudon may have been accessible and influential to Skirving.

Dr. Rotenstein’s complete paper on John Skirving is available here: John Skirving, Capital Craftsman by David S. Rotenstein

Special thanks to Dr. David Rotentstein for allowing us to publish his paper in this post.
Ms. Erin Mast is the Curator at President Lincoln’s Cottage.


Filed under History, Preservation

8 responses to “John Skirving, Architect of the Cottage

  1. Linda Klein

    I am looking for more information on the bankruptcy of John Agg, my g.g. grandfather was a John Agg and I am looking for any connection.

    Thank You,
    Linda Klein

    • Robert Ellis

      John Agg’s bankruptcy record is the National Archvies in Washington, DC. The citation is Record Group 21, Records of the District Courts of the United States, District of Columbia, Entry 27, Banruptcy Case Papers, February 1842-March 1843, John Agg, Case File # 52.

      If you wish to purchase or see this case file, please contact me, Robert Ellis,

    • Robert Ellis

      Sorry, I didn’t read the last message.

  2. presidentlincolnscottage

    Dear Ms. Klein,

    A John Agg was buried in Rock Creek Church Cemetery, which is across the street, in 1855.

    The Historical Society of Washington, DC has Agg Family Papers (Call #1926.001) that might yield more information for you, though their description indicates the collection consists mostly of invitations to various events rather than personal correspondence or financial papers.

    Regarding the bankruptcy of John Agg, you might begin your search with the Riggs Bank archives. I would not be surprised if Agg banked with Corcoran & Riggs. Riggs Bank merged with PNC a few years ago, at which point a large portion of the Riggs Archives were deposited at the George Washington University in DC. See their website to read information on researching their collections:

    They’re still in the process of indexing and housing everything, but it cannot hurt to ask.

    Best wishes

  3. David Rotenstein

    John Agg filed for bankruptcy under a short-lived federal law. The complete bankruptcy case file is in the National Archives. If you send me your email address I will send you the information plus scans from my files.

    David Rotenstein

  4. Linda Klein

    I would appreciate the bankruptcy information and the help.

    Linda Klein

  5. I’ve got problems with viewing your blog layout with the most recent release of Opera. Looks good in IE7 and Firefox however.Hope you have a lovely day.

    • presidentlincolnscottage

      Thanks for the note, Cynthia. My guess is that’s a WordPress fix and not something we can adjust on our own, but we’ll look into it!

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s